Prognostic Factors for Decompressive Hemicraniectomy in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Patients with Traumatic Mass Lesions: A Prospective Experience from a Developing Country
Keywords:Decompressive Craniectomy, Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Traumatic Mass Lesion, Intracranial Pressure, Glasgow Outcome Scale
Objective: To evaluate the prognostic factors affecting functional clinical outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury patients with traumatic mass lesions undergoing decompressive hemicraniectomy (DHC).
Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort of 85 patients of severe traumatic brain injury patients with traumatic mass lesions underwent a unilateral decompressive hemicraniectomy. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Score at 28 days, 3 months, and 6 months. Bivariate analysis (chi-squared) was used to identify parameters that resulted in poor outcomes and multiple regression was used to identify independent factors predicting poor outcomes.
Results: 85 patients were recruited. Functional outcomes were dichotomised as favourable (Glasgow Outcome Score of 4 – 5) and poor (Glasgow Outcome Score 1-3) and evaluated at 28 days, 3 and 6 months. A total of 59 patients expired (69.4%). Bivariate analysis revealed GCS 3 – 5 at presentation (P = 0.002), midline shift greater than 7.5mm (P < 0.001), the volume of the mass lesion more than 40ml (P = 0.006) resulted in a poor outcome. Age dichotomised to less than or more than 50 years bordered statistical significance (P = 0.063). Only GCS at presentation and midline shift were independent factors that predicted poor outcomes when controlling for covariates.
Conclusion: Decompressive hemicraniectomy can be a lifesaving intervention in managing severe traumatic brain injury patients with traumatic mass lesions. However, its use needs to be employed judiciously.
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