Pakistan Journal Of Neurological Surgery https://www.pakjns.org/index.php/pjns <p>Pakistan Journal of Neurological surgery (PJNS) is an official Journal of the Pakistan Society of Neurosurgeons (PSN), Department of Neurosurgery, Punjab Insitute of Neurosciences (PINS) Lahore Pakistan. It has been in print since 1998.</p> <p>Journal archives: (<a href="https://pakjns.org/index.php/pjns/issue/archive">https://pakjns.org/index.php/pjns/issue/archive</a>)</p> <p>Journal Email: admin@pakjns.org</p> <p>Publisher link: (<a href="http://www.paksn.org/pjns/">http://www.paksn.org/pjns/</a>)</p> <p>Email: publisher.pakjns@paksn.org</p> Pakistan Society of Neurosurgeons (PSN). Website: https://www.paksn.org/pjns/. Email, Email: publisher.pakjns@paksn.org en-US Pakistan Journal Of Neurological Surgery 1995-8811 <p>The work published by PJNS is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).</a> Copyrights on any open access article published by Pakistan Journal of Neurological Surgery are retained by the author(s).</p> A Study on Ocular Manifestations Seen in Patients with Cerebral Palsy https://www.pakjns.org/index.php/pjns/article/view/980 <p><strong>Background:</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;Cerebral palsy (CP) encompasses various neurological disorders like abnormal brain development or permanent brain damage, impacting muscle tone, and motor function. This study assessed ocular manifestations in patients with CP, including visual acuity, refractive errors, ocular alignment, and anterior and posterior eye segments.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) from 1st November 2022 to 30<sup>th </sup>September 2023. Data collected included detailed medical, ocular, and birth histories, age and gender of the patient, type of CP, visual acuity (VA) if possible, type of refractive error, ocular alignment and motility and anterior and posterior segments examination of the eyes. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;The study included 40 patients of which twenty-nine (72.5%) were male. The study found spastic CP to be the most prevalent in 23 (57.5%) patients followed by hypotonic CP 12 (30%) and mixed type 5 (12%). VA was examined in CP patients over 4 years with a mean VA of 0.6 and a range of 0.0 to 0.8 LogMAR. Strabismus was found in 33(82.5%) patients with esotropia being the most common in 21 (52.5%) patients, exotropia in 6 (15.0%) patients, and vertical deviation in 6 (15.0%) patients. Ocular motility defect of abduction deficit was found in 2 (5%) patients. Other findings included ptosis in 1(2.5%), nystagmus in 2(5%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit ocular abnormalities, necessitating regular ophthalmic examinations to prevent life-long visual disabilities/complications and to support their overall development.</p> Nazli Gul Muhammad Rizwan Yasmeen Momina Haq Anam Haq Imran Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Nazli Gul, Muhammad Rizwan, Yasmeen, Momina Haq, Anam Haq, Imran Ahmed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/40/ 2024-06-01 2024-06-01 28 2 170 176 10.36552/pjns.v28i2.980 Comprehensive Analysis of Spinal Dysraphism: Early Institutional Experience at Pediatric Neurosurgery of Punjab Institute of Neurosciences https://www.pakjns.org/index.php/pjns/article/view/951 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients presenting with spinal dysraphism.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Punjab Institute of Neurosciences in Lahore and included data from patients aged &lt;16 years with spinal dysraphism over 7 months from March 2023 to September 2023. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 27.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among 32 patients, age distribution: &lt;1 year (37.5%, mean age: 5.58±2.31 months), 1-4 years (25%, mean age: 3.25±0.6 years), 5-15 years (37.5%, mean age: 11±2.6 years). Gender: 22 males (68.75%), 10 females (31.25%). The most prevalent clinical presentations were Myelomeningocele (18.75%) and Meningocele (15.63%), both predominantly observed in patients under 1 year of age. Among the cutaneous findings, Fluid sacs (34.38%) and Tuft of Hair (15.63%) were the most common. In terms of other clinical findings, Lower Limb Weakness (50.00%) and Lower Limb Muscle Atrophy (21.88%) had the highest percentages.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study revealed a diverse age distribution, with Myelomeningocele and Meningocele being common clinical presentations, especially in infants. Some of the physical signs of the condition included a fluid sac. a tuft of hair on the back, and weak and underdeveloped leg muscles.</p> Hassaan Zahid Muhammad Irfan Usman Ahmad Kamboh Asad Iftikhar Shah Hassan Ali Syed Shahzad Hussain Copyright (c) 2024 Hassaan Zahid, Muhammad Irfan, Usman Ahmad Kamboh, Asad Iftikhar Shah, Hassan Ali, Syed Shahzad Hussain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/40/ 2024-06-01 2024-06-01 28 2 153 161 10.36552/pjns.v28i2.951 Computed Tomography Findings of Traumatic Brain Injury and its Assessment in a Teaching Hospital https://www.pakjns.org/index.php/pjns/article/view/979 <p>The objective of the study was to evaluate the frequency and findings of traumatic brain injury on computed tomography in Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital, Mardan Medical Complex.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; Methods:</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;A prospective cross-sectional study from March 2023 to February 2024 was done in Mardan Medical Complex (MMC), Mardan. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used with a sample size of 680. Data collection was done from the Radiology and Emergency departments with consent taken. Data descriptive statistical analysis was done through SPSS version 22.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;A total of 680 patients were scanned including 471(69.26%) males and 209(30.74%) females. The frequency (389) (57.20%) of traumatic brain injury was high in age group 1-19 and least (60) (8.82%) in age group &gt;60. CT brain scan findings revealed 397(58.39%) normal and 283(41.62%) abnormal patients. In abnormal patients, the most common findings on CT were intra-axial hemorrhage 117(41.36%). The most common mode of injury was RTA 326(47.94%) followed by HOF 212(31.18%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;The study showed that in traumatic brain injury, the majority of the subjects were male as compared to female and the most common mode of injury was road traffic accidents followed by falls from height. The findings of intra-axial hemorrhage were the highest in all traumatic brain injuries</p> Ghazan Khan Mewat Shah Khurram Saleem Yasmeen Shifa A. Khan Muhammad Rizwan Copyright (c) 2024 Ghazan Khan, Mewat Shah, Khurram Saleem, Yasmeen, Shifa A. Khan, Muhammad Rizwan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/40/ 2024-06-01 2024-06-01 28 2 162 169 10.36552/pjns.v28i2.979