The Swirl Sign and Its Relationship to Patient Outcomes in Extradural Hematomas: A Retrospective Investigation
Introduction:" Swirl sign" is a relatively uncommon sign, seen on non-contrast CT scans in patients with head trauma who develop extradural hematoma the prognostic significance of which is controversial. This research aims to evaluate the predictive significance of the swirl sign in patients with an extradural hemorrhage.
Material and Methods: It was a retrospective study and included 145 patients, with traumatic brain injury, who underwent surgical treatment at the Department of Neurosurgery Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, between January 2022 and January 2023 and had traumatic EDH identified by computed tomography scan. Patients who did not undergo surgery or had combined or open craniocerebral injuries were eliminated. A Glasgow Outcome Scale score was used to evaluate outcomes after three months of traumatic brain injury. Mann-Whitney U test, the Chi-square test, and multivariate logistic regression were applied for descriptive and inferential analysis.
Results: A total of 145 cases were evaluated, 19 (13.1%) demonstrated the sign on a CT scan of the brain. Analysis displayed a notable association between the incidence of the swirl sign and pupillary size, preoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score, time between trauma and first CT scan, and volume of hematoma measured intraoperatively. Patients displaying the swirl sign showed an increased mortality rate (25%) compared to patients without the swirl sign (5%) and worse outcomes at 3 months.
Conclusion: The presence of the swirl sign on the CT scan had a significant association with worse outcomes. Early detection and prompt surgical evacuation are important for patients with this sign.
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